Martin Janoušek

603 151 061

603 151 065

gadesign@seznam.cz


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In Potsdam, little has been agreed. The three heads of state and government at the time had many disagreements: despite many disagreements, allied leaders managed to reach some agreements in Potsdam. Negotiators thus confirmed the status of Germany demilitarized and disarmed among the four zones of the Allied occupation. According to the protocol of the conference, there should be „complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany“; all aspects of German industry that could be used for military purposes should be removed; all German military and paramilitary forces should be eliminated; and the manufacture of all military equipment in Germany was prohibited. In addition, German society should be redeveloped by the repeal of all discriminatory laws of the Nazi era and by the arrest and trial of Germans considered „war criminals“ on the democratic model. The German education and judicial system should be purged of all authoritarian influence and democratic political parties would be encouraged to participate in the management of Germany at the local and national levels. However, the re-establishment of a German national government was postponed indefinitely and the Allied Control Commission (composed of four occupying powers, the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union) would rule the country during the interregnum. One of the many agreements of the Potsdam conference was that Germans living in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia at the end of World War II should be repatriated to Germany. At that time, the Soviet army occupied Poland entirely and held much of Eastern Europe with a military power three times greater than the Allied forces of the West. [Citation required] The declaration of the liberated Europe has little to do to dispel the sphere of influence of the agreements that had been incorporated into ceasefire agreements. The Allies met on 17 July of the same year for the Potsdam Conference. The summit, which continued until 2 August, brought together leaders from the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom. By that time Roosevelt had died and Churchill had lost the 1945 election, so there were open disagreements over the conduct of the conference.

The aim of the meeting was to discuss the best way to punish Nazi Germany and to build on the thought-provoking decisions taken at the Yalta conference. Although a number of agreements and compromises have been reached in Potsdam, important issues had not yet been resolved. Very quickly, the Soviet Union rebuilt the German Communist Party in the eastern part of Germany and began to lay the foundations for an East German nation-state, modelled on that of the USSR. In February 1945, the Three Greats – Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin – met in Yalta, in the region of the USSR in Crimea. The Potsdam Conference is perhaps best known for President Truman`s meeting with Stalin on July 24, 1945, during which the President announced to the Soviet leader that the United States had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945. Historians have often interpreted Truman`s somewhat firm attitude during the negotiations to mean that the U.S. negotiating team believed that the U.S. nuclear capabilities would strengthen its bargaining power.

Stalin, however, was already well informed about the American nuclear program thanks to the Soviet secret services; he stood his ground in his positions. This situation has made negotiations difficult. The leaders of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union, who had remained allies during the war despite their differences, never met collectively again to discuss cooperation in post-war reconstruction. The three heads of state and government have ratified the agreement of the European Advisory Commission setting the limits of post-war zones of occupation for Germany: three zones of occupation, one for each of the three main allies.